Home Lesson Plans Activities Field Trips Standards 01 How Humans Think While Understanding the Natural World - Science as Inquiry02 What we Know Today About the World Around Us - Historical Perspectives01 Doing Scientific Inquiry02 Living the Values of Inquiry03 Using Unifying Concepts and Themes04 Doing Safety05 Relating the Nature of Technology to Science01 Understanding Inquiry & Character of Knowledge02 Interdependence of Science Technology & Society03 MALAMA I KA AINA: Sustainability04 Unity & Diversity05 Interdependence of Organisms06 Cycle of Matter and Energy Flow07 Biological Evolution08 Heredity09 Cells, Tissues, and Organs10 Human Development11 Wellness12 Learning and Human Behavior13 Nature of Matter14 Energy, Its Transformation and Matter15 Forces, Motion, Sound and Light16 Universe17 Forces of the universe18 Earth in the Solar System19 Forces that Shape the Earth
Standard Number:0
Hawaii State Standards Toolkit
National Standards: History and Nature of Science K-4
National Standards: History and Nature of Science 5-8

Field Trips
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Standard 01 Activities

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In other words, scientific inquiry is a particular way of knowing about the structure and workings of the world and Universe beyond. It is not a magical process but one that follow strict rules and conventions; the knowledge generated is subject to scrutiny until accepted.

For example, Galileo dropped two different balls at the same time and proved that all objects fell at the same rate.

Read Galileo's Big Mistake
For most of his adult life, from about the age of 30 until his death at 78 in the year 1642, Galileo propounded his theory of how the tides work. Yet a lengthy summary of our understanding of the tides that the British physicist Lord Kelvin published in 1882 mentions Galileo only in passing.

Why the cursory treatment? Because Galileo's theory of the tides, while extremely well thought out and eminently reasonable considering the state of scientific knowledge at the time, was wrong. Indeed, it was the most significant stumble in an otherwise brilliant scientific career. A look back at Galileo's big mistake offers clues to how and why such a great thinker could have made it, and what lessons it can offer us today.

Domain 2: What We Know About the World Around Us

Historical Perspectives

Standard 01: UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY AND THE CHARACTER OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: students explain the process of how scientific knowledge is generated by scientific inquiry, and be able to critique a scientific investigation.

Standard Number:1

K-3

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

Identify and describe the skills of inquiry including asking questions, doing a scientific investigation, and comparing the answers with what is already known.

Give examples where scientists use technology to increase their ability to observe, measure, and compare things more accurately.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

Describe how scientists prove that their conclusions are valid.

4-5

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

Describe scientific inquiry including the asking of questions, conducting investigations, answering the questions, and presenting the results to others.

Explain how scientific methods for understanding are not perfect and results are not "magic".

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

Explain how knowledge is acquired through scientific investigations.

Describe the events/people that made major contributions to science and technology throughout history.

K-4 National Standards: History and Nature of Science

Understand Science as a human endeavor.

  • Science and technology have been practised by people for a long time.
  • Men and women have made a variety of contributions throughout the history of science and technology.
  • Although men and women using scientific inqury have learned much about the object, events, and phenomena in nature, much more remains to be understood. Science will never be finished.
  • Many people choose science as a career and devote their entire lives to studying it. Many people derive great pleasure from doing science.

5-8 National Standards

Understand Science as a human endeavor

  • Women and men of various social and ethnic backgrounds engage in the activities of science, engineering, and related fields such as the health professions. Some scientists work in teams and some work alone, but all communicate extensively with others.
  • Science requires different abilities, depending on such factors as the field of study and type of inquiry. Science is very much a human endeavor, and the work of science relies on basic human qualities, such as reasoning, insight, energy, skill, and creativity- as well as on the scientific habits of mind, such as tolerance of ambiguity, skepticism, and openness to new ideas.

Nature of Science

  • Scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observation, experiments, and theoretical and mathmatical models.
  • In areas where active research is being pursued and in which there is not a great deal of experimental or observational evidence and understanding, it is normal for scientist to differ with one another about the interpretation of evidence or theory being considered.
  • Evaluation of scientific inquiry includes reviewing the experimental procedures, examining the evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same observation.

History of Science

  • Studying some of the individuals that have contributed to science provides further understanding of scientific inquiry, science as a human endeavor, the nature of science, and the relationship between science and society.
  • In a historical perspective, science has been practised by different individuals in different cultures. Scientists and engineers of high achievement are considered to be amoung the most valued contributors to their culture.
  • Tracing the history of science can show how difficult it was for scientific innovators to break through accepted ideas of their time to reach the conclusions that we currently take for granted.
Standard Number:0

Kindergarden

The Student:

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

1. Explains why questions were raised.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

1. Shows and example of a valid reason.

Grade 1

The Student:

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

1. Identifies and describes the skills of asking questions and comparing the answers.

2. Explains why scientist use tools in their work.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

1. Tells about their reasons.

Grade 2

The Student:

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

1. Identifies and describes the skills of inquiry asking questions, and comparing the answers with what is already known.

2. Gives examples where scientist use tools to increase their ability to observe, measure, and compare things more accurately.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

1. Describes how they think their ideas are reasonable.

Grade 3

The Student:

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

1. Identifies and describes the skills of inquiry including asking questions, doing a scientific investigation and comparing the answers with what is already known.

2. Gives examples where scientist used technology (tools) to increase their ability to observe, measure, and compare things more accurately.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

1. Describes how scientists prove(demonstrate) that the conclusions from their investigations are valid (reasonable).

Grade 4

The Student:

1. Identifies and describes the skills of inquiry including asking questions, and doing a scientific investigation.

2. Gives examples where scientist used technology (tools, equipment, and associated techniques, e.g. balances, hand lens, telescopes) to increase their ability to observe, measure, and compare things more accurately.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

1. Describes how scientists prove(shows or demonstrates) that the conclusions are valid (well-grounded).

Grade 5

The Student:

1. Identifies and describes the skills of inquiry including asking questions, and doing a scientific investigation, and comparing answers to what is already known.

2. Gives examples where scientist used technology (tools, equipment, and associated techniques, e.g. balances, hand lens, telescopes) to increase their ability to observe, measure, and compare things more accurately.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

1. Describes how scientists prove(shows or demonstrates) that the conclusions are valid (well-grounded).