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Standard 05: RELATING THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY TO SCIENCE: Students use the problem-solving process to address current issues involving human adaptation in the environment.

Hawaii Standard 05 from Domain 01 is aligned most closely with the National Science Content Standard F, Science in Personal and Social Perspectives, concept Science and Technology in Society. The content standard for K-4 states:

    "Environments are the space, conditions, and factors that affect an individual's and a population's ability to survive and their quality of life. Changes in environments can be natural or influenced by humans. Some changes are good, some are bad, and some are neither good nor bad. Pollution is a change in the environment that can influence the health, survival, or activities of organisms, including humans. Some environmental changes occur slowly, and others occur rapidly. Students should understand the different consequences of changing environments in small increments over long periods as compared with changing environments in large increments over short periods. "

The National Science Standards guides to content standards for Science and Technology and Science in Personal Social Perspectives provide excellent further clarification for these concepts and pedagogical issues. The links are included on the Standards pages.

Although National Science Standards are for Science and Technology are not encapulated in the Hawaiian Science Standards the following suggestions can be incorpated within this standard:

    "Emphasizes developing the ability to design a solution to a problem and understanding the relationship of science and technology and the way people are involved in both. Help establish design as the technological equivalent to inquiry in science. Begin the understanding of the design process, as well as the ability to solve simple design problems.

    "Children in grades K-4 understand and can carry out design activities earlier than they can inquiry activities, but they cannot easily tell the difference between the two, nor is it important whether they can. In grades K-4, children should have a variety of educational experiences that involve science and technology, sometimes in the same activity and other times separately. When the activities are informal and open, such as building a balance and comparing the weight of objects on it, it is difficult to separate inquiry from technological design. At other times, the distinction might be clear to adults but not to children."

    "Children's abilities in technological problem solving can be developed by firsthand experience in tackling tasks with a technological purpose. They also can study technological products and systems in their world--zippers, coat hooks, can openers, bridges, and automobiles. Children can engage in projects that are appropriately challenging for their developmental level--ones in which they must design a way to fasten, move, or communicate. They can study existing products to determine function and try to identify problems solved, materials used, and how well a product does what it is supposed to do. An old technological device, such as an apple peeler, can be used as a mystery object for students to investigate and figure out what it does, how it helps people, and what problems it might solve and cause. Such activities provide excellent opportunities to direct attention to specific technology--the tools and instruments used in science."